A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government.

Cocaine

Derived from coca leaves, it is a drug sometimes known as coke, Charlie, crack and more. It is one of the most addictive drugs, giving a feeling of energy and a ‘high’. It is usually used as a white powder and is snorted. However, some users are turning to the crystal version (crack or freebase) which can be smoked. Signs of coke use include dilated pupils, high temperature, increased heart rate and insomnia. The effects of cocaine are quite short-lived and users often experience a crash once the drug has left the brain. This makes them depressed, irritable and tired.

Heroin

Derived from opium in the poppy, the controlled substance comes in the form of a light brown or white powder. So, it has a street name of brown, as well as smack, H, dope, junk and skag. It can be heated and injected or smoked in a rolled joint or cigarette. The drug can also be inhaled (sometimes known as ‘chasing the dragon’). It gives users a ‘rush’ or pleasurable sensation, which can also be accompanied by heaviness in the limbs, flushed skin, and a dry mouth. Heroin also affects the brain’s ability to perceive pain and heightens feelings of pleasure. However, afterwards some users feel nauseous and experience vomiting.

Inhalants and solvents

These are not illegal substances but nonetheless they can be abused. They are usually readily available in household products that contain ingredients that when inhaled of sniffed give a high. Such substances include glue, cleaning fluids, nail polish remover, petrol, correction fluid, hair spray and propellant in other aerosol cans. Effects of intoxification can last from a matter of minutes to several hours depending on the amount and frequency of inhalation.

Ketamine

The full name for ketamine is ketamine hydrochloride. More commonly it is known as Ket, new ecstasy and psychedelic heroin. The drug is an anaesthetic which depresses the central nervous system. It sedates and causes hallucinations. The controlled substance also known to affect the bladder. Its licensed use is for anaesthetic in humans and animals. It is often best known for its use in horses. It is most commonly found in injectable form but can be converted into a white powder for snorting or smoking, or in capsules.

LSD

Also known as acid, trips, hits and tabs, it is a hallucinogenic drug. It is one of the most potent mood changing substances. It is manufactured from lysergic acid which is found in the fungus ergot, on rye and other grains. The drug is often taken on blotting paper on the tongue but can also come in tablets (usually coloured), clear liquid and clear gelatine. LSD causes dilated pupils, a rise in body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, the greatest effects are on the emotions with mood swings and these effects depend on the user’s personality and mood at the time.

The Haynes Clinic is an alcohol and drug rehab clinic which offers detox and counselling for people with addictions. Call 01462 851 414 for free and confidential advice.